The author's main theme is the development by Sherman of his "hard war" strategy and the destruction of the enemy's capacity to make war by destroying his economic base and his support among the population. Submit an electronic copy in the assignment drop box by the due date. We offer the services below for free on all orders; E-mail us: support@masterlynursingpapers.com. The expedition demonstrated to Sherman and other Federal commanders how to conduct “hard war” successfully. Avoid excessive use of quotations. President Lincoln and Generals Sherman and Grant embraced a “hard war-soft peace” philosophy by the end of the war, with General Sherman being its principal proponent; given that General Sherman was a war criminal, it makes sense that he supported such brutal policy. But the hard-war strategy left a legacy of bitterness that lasted for generations. The cover page and reference page in correct APA do not count towards the minimum word amount. This means two pages of content, which requires clear and focused writing. Sherman's greatest contribution to the war, the strategy of total warfare—endorsed by General Grant and President Lincoln—has been the subject of much controversy. General Sherman's record as a tactician was mixed, and his military legacy rests primarily on his command of logistics and on his brilliance as a strategist. He eliminated Atlanta's war making potential and brought sheer destruction to Georgia, then offered generous surrender terms. Sherman himself stated that "[i]f I had made up my mind to burn Columbia I would have burnt it with no more feeling than I would a common prairie dog village; but I did not do it . Like Grant, Sherman was convinced that the Confederacy's strategic, economic, and psychological ability to wage further war needed to be definitively crushed if the fighting were to end. He engages notable Civil War historians . Liddell Hart, "Notes on Two Discussions with Patton, 1944," Feb. 20, 1948, GSP Papers, box 6, USMA Library. (4%) Format includes title page, body of paper, & reference page, with pages numbered, No need to gamble yet we've got you covered. The severity of the destructive acts by Union troops was significantly greater in South Carolina than in Georgia or North Carolina. . 200–202. sets out the context/background of your argument; introduces the theoretical perspectives you will be using; may define key terms (alternatively you can do the work of defining terms in the second paragraph); sets out your thesis statement/line of argument/central contention; and. The Army destroyed railroads, farms, and houses- gobbling up  food and confiscating jewelry looted from civilians. What was General Sherman’s “hard war,” what was his “bold strategy” after taking Atlanta, and how did he justify his unconventional plan to Grant and Lincoln? “Sherman’s strategy is the art of war employed by the unsuccessful,” Signal declared. Sherman’s tactics along with those used by Union cavalry commander Philip Sheridan in the Shenandoah Valley are seen as the first use of modern total warfare. Major General William Tecumseh Sherman was a contradiction embodied. Be sure to completely answer all the questions for each bullet point. When the city council appealed to him to rescind that order, on the grounds that it would cause great hardship to women, children, the elderly, and others who bore no responsibility for the conduct of the war, Sherman sent a response in which he sought to articulate his conviction that a lasting peace would be possible only if the Union were restored, and that he was therefore prepared to do all he could do to quash the rebellion: Literary critic Edmund Wilson found in Sherman's Memoirs a fascinating and disturbing account of an "appetite for warfare" that "grows as it feeds on the South". My guess is you're referring principally to Sherman's "March to the Sea" near the end of 1864, i.e., the last full year of the U.S. Civil War, in which this general led a vast Union army from Atlanta through northern Georgia and parts of South Carolina to Savannah on the Atlantic coast, effectively splitting the territory of the Confederacy. This appears to have been a consequence of the animosity among both Union soldiers and officers to the state that they regarded as the "cockpit of secession". . (A) Sherman's hard war strategy was to conduct the Norths campaign as a war of conquest and employ a scorched earth tactic to break the rebellion. 712–714, 727–729. “I wonder if the vengeance of heaven will not pursue such fiends!” Le Conte wrote of Sherman’s army. The influential 20th-century British military historian and theorist B. H. Liddell Hart ranked Sherman as one of the most important strategists in the annals of war, along with Scipio Africanus, Belisarius, Napoleon Bonaparte, T. E. Lawrence, and Erwin Rommel. -- Civil War History "With Sherman's Mississippi Campaign , Foster has contributed significantly to the literature on the Civil War's western theater. Total War in the Civil War. The author's main theme is the development by Sherman of his "hard war" strategy and the destruction of the enemy's capacity to make war by destroying his economic base and his support among the population. His siblings all enjoyed professional success. The essence of the Union’s hard war strategy is demonstrated in General William Tecumseh Sherman’s March to the Sea, a path of destruction across the State of Georgia principally from Atlanta to Savannah. (C) Sherman moved deep into … Grimsley cited a letter from Sherman to Grant… Engraving depicting brutality of Union troops along the path to Savannah. "[7] Historian James M. McPherson has concluded that: In this connection, it is noteworthy that Sherman and his subordinates (particularly John A. Logan) took steps to protect Raleigh, North Carolina, from acts of revenge after the assassination of President Lincoln.[9]. What was General Sherman's "hard war," what was his "bold strategy" after taking Atlanta, and how did he justify his unconventional plan to Grant and Lincoln? On the other hand, when comparing Sherman's scorched earth campaigns to the actions of the British Army during the Second Boer War (1899–1902)—another war in which civilians were targeted because of their central role in sustaining an armed resistance—South African historian Hermann Giliomee declares that it "looks as if Sherman struck a better balance than the British commanders between severity and restraint in taking actions proportional to legitimate needs". present a topic sentence or central idea supporting your thesis statement/line of argument/central contention; contain developing sentences which extend on or amplify the topic sentence; give evidence/examples/references that support/relate to your topic sentence; and, restates your thesis statement/line of argument/central contention; and. Let's use Sherman's March to the Sea as a template to understand the reasoning. Though exact figures are not available, the loss of civilian life appears to have been very small. His younger brother John served in the U.S. Senate. After the fall of Atlanta in 1864, Sherman ordered the city's evacuation. Length: 1000-1500 words; answers must thoroughly address the prompts in a clear, concise manner. (A) Sherman's hard war strategy was to conduct the Norths campaign as a war of conquest and employ a scorched earth tactic to break the rebellion. Step-by-step answer Sherman graduated from the United States Military Academy at West Point in 1840. Review the rubric criteria for this assignment. Sherman’s army burned much of Columbia, the capital of South Carolina. The results were his March to the sea which ultimately broke the confederates. President Lincoln and Generals Sherman and Grant embraced a “hard war-soft peace” philosophy by the end of the war, with General Sherman being its principal proponent; given that General Sherman was a war criminal, it makes sense that he supported such brutal policy. Step-by-step answer However, the Civil War was dragging on and General William Tecumseh Sherman was determined to finally end the fighting. The March to the Sea: Sherman’s Total War Strategy to Save the Union Depending on geography, William T Sherman has gone down in the annuals of history as either one of the most hated or most respected generals of the Civil War. Separate each section in your paper with a clear heading that allows your professor to know which bullet you are addressing in that section of your paper. See, for instance, Grimsley, pp. Sherman’s Total War tactic was his way of ending a war faster than normal. What was General Sherman's "hard war," what was his "bold strategy" after taking Atlanta, and how did he justify his unconventional plan to Grant and Lincoln? Write a 1000-1500-word essay addressing each of the following points. Sherman’s Tactics: Strategy and Total War Destruction of a Railroad by the Union Army in Georgia (1864). Replacing Grant as the overall commander in the West in March 1864, Sherman vigorously implemented the Union’s then-prevailing “hard war” military strategy, in the process making his name infamous to generations of Southerners. ESSAY GUIDELINES -: Write a 1000-1500-word essay addressing each of the following points. Sherman's strategy of total war brought the war home to many in the Deep South. This page has been accessed 17,354 times. William Tecumseh Sherman was born in 1820 in Lancaster, Ohio, to Charles Robert Sherman, a successful lawyer. “Sherman’s strategy is the art of war employed by the unsuccessful,” Signal declared. [11] Former U.S. Defense Secretary Robert McNamara refers equivocally to the statement that "war is cruelty and you cannot refine it" in both the book Wilson's Ghost[12] and in his interview for the film The Fog of War. To them, Sherman's devastating march through the South opened the way to the kind of warfare that culminated in World War II. The essence of the Union’s hard war strategy is demonstrated in General William Tecumseh Sherman’s March to the Sea, a path of destruction across the State of Georgia principally from Atlanta to Savannah. Its importance rested more in its impact on Sherman’s evolving policy toward Southern civilians and the Union strategy to win the war than on immediate military ramifications in Mississippi. Atlanta was devastated. (20%) Write the Paper in a scholarly manner William Tecumseh Sherman (February 8, 1820 – February 14, 1891) was an American soldier, businessman, educator, and author. Therefore, he believed that the North had to conduct its campaign as a war of conquest and employ scorched earth tactics to break the backbone of the rebellion, which he called "hard war". [1] Another WWII-era student of Liddell Hart's writings about Sherman was George S. Patton, who "'spent a long vacation studying Sherman's campaigns on the ground in Georgia and the Carolinas, with the aid of [LH's] book,'" and later "'carried out his [bold] plans, in super-Sherman style.'"[2]. See, for instance, Grimsley, pp. Sherman's advance through Georgia and South Carolina was characterized by widespread destruction of civilian supplies and infrastructure. Sherman’s army burned much of Columbia, the capital of South Carolina. Atlanta was devastated. . [3] The speed and efficiency of the destruction by Sherman's army was remarkable. “With Sherman’s Mississippi Campaign, Foster has contributed significantly to the literature on the Civil War’s western theater. He engages notable Civil War historians . Hirshson, p. 393, quoting B.H. Many Southerners reviled his “scorched earth” tactics, while others saw them as necessary to the end of the war. His vision of hard war brought the Confederacy to its knees, but forestalled thousands of battlefield and civilian deaths. 190–204; McPherson, pp. . The American Civil War lasted four years, from 1861 to 1865. William T. Sherman, a major-general for the United States Army during the Civil War, wrote the letter to General Henry Halleck, who was in Washington D.C. at the time. William T. Sherman, a major-general for the United States Army during the Civil War, wrote the letter to General Henry Halleck, who was in Washington D.C. at the time. [6] One of the most serious accusations against Sherman was that he allowed his troops to burn the city of Columbia. Nine successive defensive positions were taken up by Johnston. Liddell Hart credited Sherman with mastery of maneuver warfare (also known as the "indirect … (4%) Format includes title page, body of paper, & reference page, with pages numbered, _____ 5. The results were his March to the sea which ultimately broke the confederates. “Sherman’s strategy is the art of war employed by the unsuccessful,” Signal declared. The letter came towards the tail end of Sherman’s campaign in Georgia and his capture of Savannah, a “Christmas gift” for President Lincoln. For instance, Alabama-born Major Henry Hitchcock, who served in Sherman's staff, declared that "it is a terrible thing to consume and destroy the sustenance of thousands of people", but if the scorched earth strategy served "to paralyze their husbands and fathers who are fighting ... it is mercy in the end."[5]. Liddell Hart also stated that study of Sherman's campaigns had contributed significantly to his own "theory of strategy and tactics in mechanized warfare", which had in turn influenced Heinz Guderian's doctrine of Blitzkrieg and Rommel's use of tanks during the Second World War. He became acquainted with the people and geography of the South when the U.S. Army stationed him in Florida, Georgia, and South Carolina between 1840 and 1846. The damage done by Sherman was almost entirely limited to the destruction of much property. Dec. 11, 1872 deposition, Mixed Commission, XIV, 91, quoted in Marion B. Lucas, William T. Sherman - Index / Quick Reference, William T. Sherman - Autobiography, Memoirs, and Correspondence, https://CivilWarWiki.net/w/index.php?title=William_T._Sherman_-_Strategies&oldid=2744. Mark Grimsley described Sherman’s Savannah campaign in The Hard Hand of War. Sherman's hard war must have worked. [4] Consuming supplies, wrecking infrastructure, and undermining morale were Sherman's stated goals, and several of his Southern contemporaries noted this and commented on it. In his campaign through Georgia he implemented his total war strategy, which included speedily advancing through Georgia to the Atlantic at any cost, something he called hard war. The influential 20th century British military historian and theorist Basil Liddell Hart ranked Sherman as one of the most important strategists in the annals of war, along with Scipio Africanus, Belisarius, Napoleon Bonaparte, T. E. Lawrence, and Erwin Rommel. summarises the points and evidence you provided to support your thesis. These tactics definitely bended the common rules of war, but Sherman was willing to do this because he believed that it would bring his country back together. Sherman moved Deep into enemy territory without supply lines, but he stood with confidence faster than.. 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