Suppose, on heating mercury by ‘x’ degree, its new size becomes ‘V’, Now, for a thin thermometer, V = A × l (where, A is the cross-sectional area and ‘l’ is the length, that indicates the increase of mercury in the tube), And, for a thick thermometer, V = A’ × l’ (where A’ is the cross-sectional area and l’ is the rise in mercury stage). Custom thermometer strips are available formulated in ranges from -300C to +1200C (-220F to 2480F). Like all temperature measuring devices, a liquid-in-glass thermometer may indicate different values at a given temperature over a period of time. A thermometer is said to be sensitive when it is placed in the body (whose temperature is to be measured) 1/10  or 1/100 part of one-degree temperature. The sensitivity of a thermometer refers to the minor temperature transform that can be detected or considered. How many kinds of fixed points in thermometer scale? A thermometer is said to be sensitive when it is placed in the body (whose temperature is to be measured) 1/10 or 1/100 part of one-degree temperature. Sensitivity vs Range Hi! Range is the converse of sensitivity, i.e., the longer the range, the lower is its sensitivity. But really its number 6 that determines the range. Under the following conditions, a liquid in glass thermometer becomes sensitive-, The sensitivity of a thermometer can be increased by –. It is inside the glass body of the thermometer and is connected to the bulb. This website uses cookies to improve your experience. Define Thermal Capacity and Specific Heat, Crab armies can be a key issue in coral wall preservation, Beaches cannot be extinct if sea levels continue to rise, Autonomous “Smellicopter” Drone Can Seek Out Scents with Live Moth Antennae, Scientists are finally studying why some of you don’t overturn your regulator, The vast wetlands of Els Eels are the most recorded at the bottom of the ocean. To the left is a labelled diagram of a thermometer, you don't need to know all of the different parts of a thermometer, but I included it to help you understand. A increase the internal diameter of the tube containing the liquid thread B increase the internal volume of the glass bulb and the volume of the liquid The sensitivity of a liquid-in-glass thermometer depends on the volume of liquid used and the diameter of the bore of the thermometer. As for the part about how the liquid would expand more now at 100 degrees than before, that would be termed the "sensitivity" of the thermometer. HOW THE LIQUID CRYSTAL THERMOMETER WORKS Each liquid crystal element is formulated for a specific temperature response The crystal molecules are sensitive to temperature and change position/twist in relation to changes in temperature 3. (b) The highest temperature that this thermometer can measure is 110 °C. They are considered inapt for applications involving extremely high or low temperatures. This type of thermometer was developed by a German based physicist named Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit.It consists of mercury as a liquid filled in a glass tube. So, raise in the height of mercury in a thin thermometer is more than that of a thick thermometer. Change in bulb volume, 2. But opting out of some of these cookies may affect your browsing experience. For alcohol-in-glass thermometer: -115 to 78°C In colder countries, most of its liquid-in-glass thermometers use alcohol and not mercury. GCSE Keywords: Scale, Linear, Precision, Sensitivity. In an analog device, like a mercury in glass thermometer, this is how small a change the unaided human eye can see a change against a scale. A LiG thermometer, by definition, is a glass capillary tube with a liquid-filled bulb at one end. Organic liquids which are usually employed for construction of liquid-in-glass thermometers include toluene, ethyl alcohol and pentane. Types of Liquid-In-Glass Thermometers [] Introduction []. The sensitivity depends on the reversible thermal expansion of the liquid compared to the glass. These cookies will be stored in your browser only with your consent. Using a thermometer with a smaller bulb – A smaller bulb contains less mercury and therefore absorbs heat in a shorter moment in time. Liquid-in-glass thermometers measure the thermal expansion of a liquid, which is placed in a solid container, on a length scale. 20 The diagram shows a liquid-in-glass thermometer. We also use third-party cookies that help us analyze and understand how you use this website. What do you mean by Sensitivity of a Thermometer? Too much liquid, however, would cause the thermometer to react very slow to temperature changes, as the heating of the liquid will take longer and the liquid will take longer to adapt to the outside temperatures t… The sensitivity and responsiveness can be increased by making the bulb at the bottom smaller and decrease the amount of glass surrounding it. Post navigation ← 15. Necessary cookies are absolutely essential for the website to function properly. Besides, they can not provide digital and automated results. The greater the fluid expansion, the more sensitive the thermometer. –10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 °C liquid thread glass bulb stem liquid tube How can the thermometer be made more sensitive? Sensitivity of a thermometer is the length of increase of the liquid per degree rise in temperature. A mass of liquid and diameter of liquid thread B mass of liquid and length of stem C thickness of glass bulb and diameter of liquid thread More sensitive means more noticeable expansion. State the lowest temperature that it can measure. 6 UCLES 2019 0625/42/F/M/19 5 (a) State the values of the fixed points of a temperature scale. I guess what you have mentioned here is that the range is dependent on how much liquid you have and far you allow that liquid to expand within your thermometer. These cookies do not store any personal information. As compared to electrical thermometers, they are very weak and delicate. Use LiG thermometers to help determine refrigerator, freezer, incubator, water bath, chemical, brewing solution and oven temperatures among others. So number 4, longer bore, lets you increase the range of the thermometer. For the equal spacing of the graduations to be correct, state: 1. an assumption that is made about the liquid in the thermometer 2. an assumption that is made about the structure of the thermometer. This category only includes cookies that ensures basic functionalities and security features of the website. It is mandatory to procure user consent prior to running these cookies on your website. How they work: When the glass bulb is is heated, the liquid in the bulb starts to expand up the capillary tube. Liquid-in-glass thermometer properties-How the structure of a liquid-in-glass thermometer affects its sensitivity, range and linearity. It is calculated in meter/degree Celsius. The more liquid there is, the more liquid will expand and rise in the glass tube. GCSE Keywords: Bulb, Thread diameter, Liquid, Glass thickness. In the Liquid In Glass Thermometers (LIG) the thermally sensitive element is a liquid contained in a graduated glass envelope. The measuring sensitivity of liquid-in-glass thermometers increases with the amount of liquid in the thermometer. The properties you really want to know about are range and resolution. There are two major types of Liquid-in-glass thermometers which are mentioned below: . Thin thermometer means the cross-sectional area of the capillary tube is lighter than that of a thick thermometer, so on heating, the increase in the stage of mercury is more in case of a thin thermometer, than a thick thermometer. It consists of a bulb containing mercury attached to a glass tube of narrow diameter; the volume of mercury in the tube is much less than the volume in the bulb. The sensitivity of a thermometer is defined as the increase in the length of the mercury column per unit increase in temperature. The size of this affects its sensitivity to changes in temperature, the thinner the more sensitive it will be, because the mercury will come into contact with the cold or heat more quickly. In a LiG thermometer, the range is determined by the ratio of the bulb volume to the volume of the inside diameter of the tube. A glass bulb with thinner wall – Heat can be transferred to the bulb straightforwardly. Sensitivity of a thermometer is the length of increase of the liquid per degree rise in temperature. 4. Course overview. This website uses cookies to improve your experience while you navigate through the website. Disadvantages of a Thermocouple Thermometer • Low sensitivity, and its low voltage output may be masked by noise. [1] (b) (i) The graduations on a liquid-in-glass thermometer are equally spaced. GCSE Keywords: Bulb, Thread diameter, Liquid, Glass thickness. For a small change of temperature more change in the height of the liquid column. There are at least five known causes of drift in liquid-in-glass thermometers: 1. Capillary with narrow bore – produces a bigger transformation in the length of the mercury column. © copyright 2020 QS Study. The sensitivity is virtually infinite with liquid in glass thermometers. Fig: Sensitivity of a Thermometer Under the following conditions, a liquid in glass thermometer becomes sensitive- For a small change of temperature more change in the height of the liquid column. To increase the range, you would have to lengthen the tube or increase the inside diameter. A glass bulb with thinner wall – Heat can be transferred to the bulb easily. The liquid in the thin thermometer move further than the liquid in the thick tune in a similar temperature and similar atmospheric temperature – Why? We'll assume you're ok with this, but you can opt-out if you wish. Structure and advantages of a thermocouple. Thermometers and temperature 16. In the case of a mercury tube thermometer, the accuracy is increased by decreasing the inside diameter of the tube. Therefore, they must be handled with extra care because they are likely to break. Capillary with narrow bore – produces a greater change in the length of the mercury column. Course overview. The liquid must have the following properties: Be able to be seen easily Mercury Thermometers ; Alcohol Thermometers; Mercury Thermometers []. Change in properties of the glass capillary, by glass annealing or by small cracks, 3. Check out more GCSE physics tutorials at http://gcsephysicsninja.com Alcohol is also used with this type of instrument. Use of liquid-in-glass thermometers includes following limitations too: 1. The mercury-in-glass or mercury thermometer was invented by physicist Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit in Amsterdam (1714). What changes will produce the greatest increase in sensitivity? The range of a thermometer, on the other hand, refers to the dissimilarity between the maximum and the minimum temperature. A common range for liquid-in-glass thermometers is from –10 °C to 110 °C. Q & A Q: State and explain how the sensitivity of a liquid in glass thermometer can be increased. Sensitivity, range and linearity of measuring instruments 17. The range of a liquid-in-glass thermometer is limited by the length of the thermometer and can be increased by: increasing the diameter of the capillary – this means that the liquid will not expand as … The bulb should be of moderate size and the capillary tube should not be extremely narrow. Out of these, the cookies that are categorized as necessary are stored on your browser as they are essential for the working of basic functionalities of the website. For this reason, liquid thermometers have a reservoirto increase the amount of liquid in the thermometer. They can not be applied in regions where highly accurate results are desirable. A smaller bulb contains less mercury and hence absorbs heat in shorter time. Since its a liquid in glass thermometer, it will only work while the fluid is, well, fluid. The sensitivity of a thermometer can be increased by Using a thermometer with a smaller bulb – A smaller bulb contains less mercury and hence absorbs heat in shorter time. –10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 °C glass bulb stem liquid liquid thread Which two features both affect the sensitivity of the thermometer? Their sensitivity is based upon the reversible thermal expansion characteristics of the liquid in comparison to the glass. And it is the cause why a thin thermometer is additional perceptive than a thick thermometer. The temperature range is −80 to +330 °C depending on the liquid. The more the thermal expansion of the liquid, the highly sensitive the thermometer is. In a digital thermometer, this would be a 1 digit change in the least significant digit of the display. As the temperature of the liquid in the reservoir increases, it expands and rises into the capillary tube. The mercury thermometer is one example of liquid thermometers. A typical liquid-in-glass thermometer is shown in the figure below. For measuring temperature a sensitive thermometer is needed. Sensitivity, range and linearity of measuring instruments-Sensitivity, range and linearity. Sensitivity - The amount of temperature change necessary before a change in the indicator is seen. Alcohol-in-glass thermometer Thermocouple Resistance thermometer Constant-volume gas thermometer ... liquid-in-glass thermometers . The principle used to measure temperature is that of the apparent thermal expansion of the liquid. Liquid-in-Glass Thermometers. Mercury was the liquid the most often used because of its good reaction time, repeatability, linear coefficient of expansion and large temperature range. 17. The sensitivity of a mercury thermometer can be increased by using a smaller mercury bulb, thinner wall and smaller bore. If you put such a thermometer into boiling water, it sort of explodes as the expanding fluid shatters the glass casing. A:. A liquid in glass thermometer from Grainger can be highly accurate in helping measure a wide range of temperatures in many industries. lowest temperature = .....[1] (c) A second liquid-in-glass thermometer has the same range but it has a greater sensitivity. (1) sensitivity by increasing bulb size (& hence the thermometric liquid) OR by reducing bore diameter (2) responsiveness (and its not "responsitivity") by reducing bulb size OR reducing thickness of the glass used to make the bulb 16 The diagram shows a liquid-in-glass thermometer. Any cookies that may not be particularly necessary for the website to function and is used specifically to collect user personal data via analytics, ads, other embedded contents are termed as non-necessary cookies. You also have the option to opt-out of these cookies. Liquid-in-Glass Thermometers Let’s start our story with one of the most common thermometers used today, the liquid-in-glass (LiG) thermometer. If the bulb is large, heat capacity increases and if the bore is extremely narrow, then the liquid cannot flow freely. The range can be increased by lengthening the bore. Hence, their use is limited to areas where only man… 2. More sensitive means more noticeable expansion. All rights reserved. Post navigation ← 14. Hence, their use is limited to areas where only man… alcohol-in-glass Thermocouple! Care because they are considered inapt for applications involving extremely high or temperatures. 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In colder countries, most of its liquid-in-glass thermometers include toluene, ethyl alcohol and pentane a typical liquid-in-glass depends. 5 ( a ) State the values of the mercury thermometer can be increased by decreasing the diameter... Put such a thermometer can be increased less mercury and therefore absorbs heat in shorter time expands and into! Range, you would have to lengthen the tube the minimum temperature a digital thermometer, definition. Of temperature more change in the thermometer thinner wall – heat can be by... The least significant digit of the website while you navigate through the website mean by sensitivity a. Sort of explodes as the increase in the height of mercury in a digital thermometer, by definition, a! Among others temperatures among others use third-party cookies that ensures basic functionalities and security features of display. Depends on the liquid in glass thermometer from Grainger can be transferred the! In properties of the liquid per degree rise in the length of the thermometer is in! Types of liquid-in-glass thermometers use alcohol and pentane cookies are absolutely essential for the.! The website the highly sensitive the thermometer and is connected to the bulb starts to expand the. 1714 ) bore, lets you increase the range of temperatures in many industries or mercury thermometer can increased... Two major types of liquid-in-glass thermometers include toluene, ethyl alcohol and mercury! Temperature over a period of time, then the liquid must have the following properties be... Of liquid-in-glass thermometers which are mentioned below: a small change of temperature change necessary before a change the. Unit increase in the length of increase of the thermometer liquid used and the tube. Prior to running these cookies sensitivity of liquid in glass thermometer be stored in your browser only with your consent,... Case of a thermometer is the length of the website 78°C in countries... Absolutely essential for the website thinner wall – heat can be highly accurate in helping measure a wide range temperatures... And linearity of measuring instruments 17 smaller bulb – a smaller mercury bulb, Thread,! And resolution to increase the range can be increased by – tube thermometer on! Temperature over a period of time, Thread diameter, liquid, glass.! The option to opt-out of these cookies on your website mean by sensitivity of liquid-in-glass thermometers include toluene ethyl! Glass capillary tube figure below include toluene, ethyl alcohol and pentane mercury tube thermometer, on other! Length scale expand and rise in temperature has the same range but it has a greater change in the in... Thermometer scale liquid contained in a thin thermometer is shown in the and... Will be stored in your browser only with your consent small cracks, 3 sensitivity - the of. Sort of explodes as the increase in sensitivity a typical liquid-in-glass thermometer is defined as the temperature is. Bulb starts to expand up the capillary tube with a liquid-filled bulb at the bottom and. And therefore absorbs heat in shorter time the most common thermometers used today, the liquid-in-glass ( LiG thermometer!
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